• Overview of Punjabi Grammar


Conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, and clauses. For example, ਅਤੇ atē ‘and’, ਜਾਂ jāṃ ‘or’, ਕਿ ki etc. are all conjunctions. Based on their use, conjunctions can be classified into two categories, as below:

Co-ordinate conjunctions

These conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, or independent clauses in compound sentences. These can connect words of various word classes like noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, and verb.

For example, ਅਤੇ/ਤੇ atē/tē ‘and’, ਜਾਂ jāṃ ‘or’ are acting as co-ordinate conjunctions in the following examples:
  1. ਮੁੰਡਾ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਡ਼ੀ ਆਏ ਸੀ।
    muṇḍā atē kuḍaī āē sī.
    The boy and girl came.
  2. ਪੰਛੀ ਗੀਤ ਗਾ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਠੰਢੀ ਹਵਾ ਵਗ ਰਹੀ ਹੈ।
    pañchī gīt gā rahē han tē ṭhaṇḍhī havā vag rahī hai.
    The birds are singing and a cool breeze is blowing.
  3. ਅੱਜ ਮੀਂਹ ਪਵੇਗਾ ਜਾਂ ਹਨੇਰੀ ਆਵੇਗੀ।
    ajj mīṃh pavēgā jāṃ hanērī āvēgī.
    Either it will rain today, or there will be a dust-storm.

Sub-ordinate conjunctions

These conjunctions are typically used to introduce dependent clauses in complex sentences. Dependent clause signifies incomplete thought for whose completion an independent clause is required. ਜੇ , ਉਂਞ uññ, ਤਾਂ tāṃ are examples of sub-ordinate conjunctions.

Note: Some conjunctions in Punjabi can be used for both co-ordinate and sub-ordinate functions, e.g. ਕਿ ki, ਭਾਵੇਂ bhāvēṃ, ਪਰ par ‘but’ etc. Relative pronouns can also be used in pairs to join different clauses in complex sentences.
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